Since ancient times, the search for the mystery of existence has been the most important concern of man. This search has been manifested in many of the tablets and cuneiform writings that contained many legends about human life and pursuit of eternity in ancient civilizations.
Along with the development of Near East civilizations, this journey seemed to be of a different nature and gradually deepened with the Abrahamic monotheistic religions and the emergence of the concept of Savior, the savior of man from the evils of this world which was complemented by the experience of Jesus of Nazareth as the first founder of the faith based on love. According to the Christian theology, this love represented the solid basis of the sacred relationship between man and God. Jesus‘s experience had a great influence on his disciples and laid a solid foundation for the concept of salvation in the letters of Saul of Tarsus and the theological books of the following monks, such as Exact Exposition of the Orthodox Faith written by John Damascene, Summa Theologiae written by Saint Thomas Aquinas, Dark Night of the Soul written by John of the Cross and other manuscripts that formed additions to previous writings.
In the same context, Muhammad’s message about love and selection was different in shape but the essence is the same. Charity and Mercy, which are considered the most important pillars of Islamic thought, inspired many of subsequent human experiences in this field, which were manifested in the philosophy of Ikhwan al-Safa‘, the faith of Muʿtazila and Sufism followers. There is no doubt that the writings and poems in this area through different historical stages were centered around the concept of divine love to achieve the gratitude. The most important of these manuscripts in this area are Al-Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya written by Ibn Arabi, and The Epistle of Forgiveness written by Abu al-ʿAlaʾ al-Maʿarri, Maṭnawīye for Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī, and the poetry of Mansur al-Hallaj, Omar Khayyam and Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī.
In the other direction, Hellenic philosophy works and the subsequent writings, such as the Republic of Plato, Al-Madina al-Fadila written by Al-Farabi and Utopia written by Thomas Moore, were important sources of literature and intellectual currents that emerged in Europe by the great thinkers such as Descartes, Voltaire and Kant, who called for a liberal thought and adaptation of new values against of individualism. After that, the Surrealist movement appeared to react to the prevailing logic, culminating in the works of André Breton and Salvador Dali who called to understand human soul deeply and to upgrade things beyond reality.
In conjunction with the movement of thought in the Mediterranean Basin and Europe, the accumulation of spiritual experiences in Hindu and Buddhist philosophies over time formed real bases for new scientific and social concepts that support human coherence based on the principle of equality as a way to achieve more harmonic human world. For example, Mahatma Gandhi’s movement which was seeking human rights based on the principle of non–violence and other social liberation movements in Latin America and South Africa against racial discrimination policies.
These accelerating changes in human consciousness have made talking about human value in our contemporary world an attractive subject for many enlightened thinkers, such as Edward Said and Nikos Kazantzakis, and Adonis who expressed the human need to cross the national borders and ethnic differences. And furthermore many novelists such as Amin Maalouf,
Paolo Coelho, Wassini Al-A’arj, Elif Shafak expressed in their novels the importance of overcoming the conflict of identities and the clash of civilizations.
This accumulation in human awareness has made the idea of the unity of truth and of man’s constant pursuit of his being the essence of this pursuit despite the different ways and styles. Moreover man in the postmodern age is in urgent need of restore his lost being in this world governed by destructive material and regain his active role to achieve a harmonious world free of conflict, poverty and nescience; a world of intellectual freedom, aesthetic values and social justice